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State Constitution of East Antarctica

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We The People of the State of East Antarctica, do establish this constitution.

Article I: "Declaration of Rights"

  1. Inherent Rights: No member of this state shall be disfranchised, or deprived of any of the rights or privileges secured to any citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land, or the judgment of his or her peers, except that the legislature may provide that there shall be no primary election held to nominate candidates for public office or to elect persons to party positions for any political party or parties in any unit of representation of the state from which such candidates or persons are nominated or elected whenever there is no contest or contests for such nominations or election as may be prescribed by general law.
  2. Source of Government: All political power is inherent in the people. All government originates with the people, is founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the people as a whole.
  3. Civil Rights: No person is to be denied the enjoyment of any civil or political right because of race, color, sex, creed, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability or national origin.
  4. Freedom of Religion: There shall be a separation between church and state. No law, policy, proclamation or other official action shall be made giving respect to, honoring, or favoring an establishment or doctrine of religion or faith, nor shall any law or policy prohibit the free exercise of religion.
  5. Freedom of Speech: Every person may freely speak, write, and publish on all subjects in either words or symbolism, being responsible for the abuse of that right.
  6. Assembly; Petition: The right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government shall never be abridged.
  7. Due Process: No person shall be deprived of liberty or property without due process of law. The right of all persons to fair and just treatment in the course of legislative and executive investigations shall not be infringed.
  8. Grand Jury: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the armed forces in time of war or public danger. Indictment may be waived by the accused. In that case the prosecution shall be by information. The grand jury shall consist of at least twelve citizens, a majority of whom concurring may return an indictment. The power of grand juries to investigate and make recommendations concerning the public welfare or safety shall never be suspended.
  9. Jeopardy and Self-Incrimination: No person shall be put in jeopardy twice for the same offense. No person shall be compelled in any criminal proceeding to be a witness against himself.
  10. Rights of Accused: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of twelve, except that the Soviet may provide for a jury of not more than twelve nor less than six in courts not of record. The accused is entitled to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be released on bail, except for felony offenses when the there is a risk of flight from justice or when the offender poses a clear and present danger to the public; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. The accused shall have the right to a court-appointed and jurisdiction-funded attorney if it is determined that the accused does not have the finances to afford counsel.
  11. Criminal Administration: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted, nor the penalty of death be imposed. Criminal administration shall be based upon the following: the rehabilitation of the offender, the need for protecting the public, the rights of victims of crimes, and restitution from the offender. No person shall be extradited to any foreign country if there exists a possibility that said individual may be subject to penalties prohibited in this section.
  12. Habeas Corpus: The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or actual or imminent invasion, the public safety requires it.
  13. Searches and Seizures: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses and other property, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated. No warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
  14. Prohibited State Action: No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. No law impairing the obligation of contracts, and no law making any irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities shall be passed. No conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.
  15. Civil Suits; Trial by Jury: In civil cases where the amount in controversy exceeds two hundred fifty dollars, the right of trial by a jury of twelve is preserved to the same extent as it existed at common law. The legislature may make provision for a verdict by not less than three-fourths of the jury and, in courts not of record, may provide for a jury of not less than six or more than twelve.
  16. Imprisonment for Debt: There shall be no imprisonment for debt. This section does not prohibit civil arrest of absconding debtors.
  17. Eminent Domain: Private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation.
  18. Right to Keep and Bear Arms: Every citizen shall have the right to keep and bear arms in the lawful defense of himself or the State; but the Legislature shall have power by law to regulate the wearing of arms with a view to prevent crime.
  19. Construction: The enumeration of rights in this constitution shall not impair or deny others retained by the people.
  20. Right of Privacy: The right of the people to privacy is recognized and shall not be infringed. The legislature shall implement this section.
  21. Citizenship Preference: This constitution does not prohibit the State from granting preferences, on the basis of Antarctic citizenship, to citizens of the State over noncitizens.
  22. Rights of Crime Victims: Crime victims, as defined by law, shall have the following rights as provided by law: the right to be reasonably protected from the accused through the imposition of appropriate bail or conditions of release by the court; the right to confer with the prosecution; the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and fairness during all phases of the criminal and juvenile justice process; the right to timely disposition of the case following the arrest of the accused; the right to obtain information about and be allowed to be present at all criminal or juvenile proceedings where the accused has the right to be present; the right to be allowed to be heard, upon request, at sentencing, before or after conviction or juvenile adjudication, and at any proceeding where the accused's release from custody is considered; the right to restitution from the accused; and the right to be informed, upon request, of the accused's escape or release from custody before or after conviction or juvenile adjudication.
  23. Marriage: Marriage is a civil union between two unrelated, human adults over the age of 18.

Article II: "Legislature"

  1. Legislative Power; Membership: The legislative power of the State is vested in a State Soviet with a membership of one hundred.
  2. Members: Qualifications: A senator shall be a qualified voter who has been a Federation citizen for at least three years and a resident of the district from which elected for at least one year, immediately preceding his filing for office. A senator shall be at least twenty-one years of age.
  3. Election and Terms: Senators shall be elected at general elections. Their terms begin on the first Monday of the April following election. The term shall be four years. One-half of the senators shall be elected every two years.
  4. Vacancies: A vacancy in the Soviet shall be filled for the unexpired term as provided by law. If no provision is made, the governor shall have the power to make an interim appointment to fill the vacancy until an election can be held.
  5. Immunities: Senators may not be held to answer before any other tribunal for any statement made in the exercise of their legislative duties while the Soviet is in session. Members attending, going to, or returning from Soviet sessions are not subject to civil process and are privileged from arrest except for felony or breach of the peace.
  6. Salary and Expenses: Senators shall receive annual salaries. They may receive a per diem allowance for expenses while in session and are entitled to travel expenses going to and from sessions. Presiding officers may receive additional compensation.
  7. Regular Sessions: The Soviet shall convene in regular session each year on the fourth Monday in May. The legislature shall adjourn from regular session no later than one ninety consecutive calendar days from the date it convenes except that a regular session may be extended once for up to ten consecutive calendar days. An extension of the regular session requires the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the membership. The Soviet shall adopt as part of the uniform rules of procedure deadlines for scheduling session work not inconsistent with provisions controlling the length of the session.
  8. Special Sessions: Special sessions may be called by the governor or by vote of two-thirds of the Soviet. The vote may be conducted by the legislative council or as prescribed by law. At special sessions called by the governor, legislation shall be limited to subjects designated in his proclamation calling the session, to subjects presented by him, and the reconsideration of bills vetoed by him after adjournment of the last regular session. Special sessions are limited to thirty days.
  9. Adjournment: The State Soviet may not adjourn or recess for longer than three days without a vote of two-thirds.
  10. Interim Committees: There shall be a legislative council, and the Soviet may establish other interim committees. The council and other interim committees may meet between legislative sessions. They may perform duties and employ personnel as provided by the legislature. Their members may receive an allowance for expenses while performing their duties.
  11. Rules: The Soviet shall adopt uniform rules of procedure, and may choose its officers and employees, judge the election and qualifications of its members and may expel a member with the concurrence of two-thirds of its members. The Soviet shall keep a journal of its proceedings. The Soviet shall regulate lobbying.
  12. Form of Bills: Every bill shall be confined to one subject unless it is an appropriation bill or one codifying, revising, or rearranging existing laws. Bills for appropriations shall be confined to appropriations. The subject of each bill shall be expressed in the title. The enacting clause shall be: "Be it enacted by the State Soviet of East Antarctica."
  13. Passage of Bills: The Soviet shall establish the procedure for enactment of bills into law. No bill may become law unless it has passed three readings on three separate days, except that any bill may be advanced from second to third reading on the same day by concurrence of three-fourths of the membership. No bill may become law without an affirmative vote of a majority of the membership. The yeas and nays on final passage shall be entered in the journal.
  14. Veto: The governor may veto bills passed by the Soviet. He may, by veto, strike or reduce items in appropriation bills. He shall return any vetoed bill, with a statement of his objections, to the Soviet.
  15. Action Upon Veto: Upon receipt of a veto message during a regular session of the Soviet, the legislature shall meet immediately and reconsider passage of the vetoed bill or item. Bills to raise revenue and appropriation bills or items, although vetoed, become law by affirmative vote of three-fourths of the membership of the Soviet. Other vetoed bills become law by affirmative vote of two-thirds. Bills vetoed after adjournment of the first regular session of the Soviet shall be reconsidered by the Soviet no later than the fifth day of the next regular or special session of that Soviet. Bills vetoed after adjournment of the second regular session shall be reconsidered by the Soviet no later than the fifth day of a special session of that Soviet, if one is called. The vote on reconsideration of a vetoed bill shall be entered on the journal.
  16. Bills Not Signed: A bill becomes law if, while the Soviet is in session, the governor neither signs nor vetoes it within fifteen calendar days, after its delivery to him. If the Soviet is not in session and the governor neither signs nor vetoes a bill within twenty calendar days, after its delivery to him, the bill becomes law.
  17. Effective Date: Laws passed by the Soviet become effective ninety days after enactment. The Soviet may, by concurrence of two-thirds of the membership, provide for another effective date.
  18. Local or Special Acts: The Soviet shall pass no local or special act if a general act can be made applicable. Whether a general act can be made applicable shall be subject to judicial determination. Local acts necessitating appropriations by a political subdivision may not become effective unless approved by a majority of the qualified voters voting thereon in the subdivision affected.
  19. Impeachment: All civil officers of the State are subject to impeachment by the State Soviet. Impeachment shall originate in the Soviet and must be approved by a two-thirds vote of its members. The motion for impeachment shall list fully the basis for the proceeding. Trial on impeachment shall be conducted by the supreme court. The chief justice shall preside at the trial. The judgment may not extend beyond removal from office, but shall not prevent proceedings in the courts on the same or related charges.
  20. Suits Against the State: The Soviet shall establish procedures for suits against the State.

Article III: "The Executive"

  1. Executive Power: The executive power shall be vested in the governor, who shall hold office for four years; the lieutenant-governor shall be chosen at the same time, and for the same term. The governor and lieutenant-governor shall be chosen at the general election and serve the office for four years. They shall be chosen jointly, by the casting by each voter of a single vote applicable to both offices, and the legislature by law shall provide for making such choice in such manner. The respective persons having the highest number of votes cast jointly for them for governor and lieutenant-governor respectively shall be elected.
  2. Qualifications of governor and lieutenant-governor: No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or lieutenant-governor, except a citizen of the Federated States, of the age of not less than thirty years, and who shall have been five years next preceding the election a resident of this state. This section does not qualify for persons born prior to the year 12009.
  3. Powers and duties of governor; compensation: The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces of the state. The governor shall have power to convene the legislature, or the Soviet only, on extraordinary occasions. At extraordinary sessions convened pursuant to the provisions of this section no subject shall be acted upon, except such as the governor may recommend for consideration. The governor shall communicate by message to the legislature at every session the condition of the state, and recommend such matters to it as he or she shall judge expedient. The governor shall expedite all such measures as may be resolved upon by the legislature, and shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed. The governor shall receive for his or her services an annual salary to be fixed by joint resolution of the Soviet and assembly, and there shall be provided for his or her use a suitable and furnished executive residence.
  4. Reprieves, commutations and pardons; powers and duties of governor relating to grants of: The governor shall have the power to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after conviction, for all offenses except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions and with such restrictions and limitations, as he or she may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, the governor shall have power to suspend the execution of the sentence, until the case shall be reported to the legislature at its next meeting, when the legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. The governor shall annually communicate to the legislature each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, stating the name of the convict, the crime of which the convict was convicted, the sentence and its date, and the date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve.
  5. When lieutenant-governor to act as governor: In case of the removal of the governor from office or of his or her death or resignation, the lieutenant-governor shall become governor for the remainder of the term. In case the governor-elect shall decline to serve or shall die, the lieutenant-governor-elect shall become governor for the full term. In case the governor is impeached, is absent from the state or is otherwise unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor, the lieutenant-governor shall act as governor until the inability shall cease or until the term of the governor shall expire. In case of the failure of the governor-elect to take the oath of office at the commencement of his or her term, the lieutenant-governor-elect shall act as governor until the governor shall take the oath.
  6. Duties and compensation of lieutenant-governor; succession to the governorship: The lieutenant-governor shall possess the same qualifications of eligibility for office as the governor. The lieutenant-governor shall be the governor of the Soviet but shall have only a casting vote therein. The lieutenant-governor shall receive for his or her services an annual salary to be fixed by joint resolution of the Soviet and assembly. In case of vacancy in the offices of both governor and lieutenant- governor, a governor and lieutenant-governor shall be elected for the remainder of the term at the next general election happening not less than three months after both offices shall have become vacant. No election of a lieutenant-governor shall be had in any event except at the time of electing a governor. In case of vacancy in the offices of both governor and lieutenant- governor or if both of them shall be impeached, absent from the state or otherwise unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor, the temporary governor of the Soviet shall act as governor until the inability shall cease or until a governor shall be elected. In case of vacancy in the office of lieutenant-governor alone, or if the lieutenant-governor shall be impeached, absent from the state or otherwise unable to discharge the duties of office, the temporary governor of the Soviet shall perform all the duties of lieutenant- governor during such vacancy or inability. If, when the duty of acting as governor devolves upon the temporary governor of the Soviet, there be a vacancy in such office or the temporary governor of the Soviet shall be absent from the state or otherwise unable to discharge the duties of governor, the speaker of the assembly shall act as governor during such vacancy or inability. The legislature may provide for the devolution of the duty of acting as governor in any case not provided for in this article.
  7. Action by governor on legislative bills; reconsideration after veto: Every bill which shall have passed the Soviet and assembly shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor; if the governor approve, he or she shall sign it; but if not, he or she shall return it with his or her objections to the house in which it shall have originated, which shall enter the objections at large on the journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of the members elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of the members elected to that house, it shall become a law notwithstanding the objections of the governor. In all such cases the votes in both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him or her, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he or she had signed it, unless the legislature shall, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not become a law without the approval of the governor. No bill shall become a law after the final adjournment of the legislature, unless approved by the governor within thirty days after such adjournment. If any bill presented to the governor contain several items of appropriation of money, the governor may object to one or more of such items while approving of the other portion of the bill. In such case the governor shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he or she objects; and the appropriation so objected to shall not take effect. If the legislature be in session, he or she shall transmit to the house in which the bill originated a copy of such statement, and the items objected to shall be separately reconsidered. If on reconsideration one or more of such items be approved by two-thirds of the members elected to each house, the same shall be part of the law, notwithstanding the objections of the governor. All the provisions of this section, in relation to bills not approved by the governor, shall apply in cases in which he or she shall withhold approval from any item or items contained in a bill appropriating money.
  8. Departmental rules and regulations; filing; publication: No rule or regulation made by any state department, board, bureau, officer, authority or commission, except such as relates to the organization or internal management of a state department, board, bureau, authority or commission shall be effective until it is filed in the office of the department of state. The legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of such rules and regulations, by appropriate laws.

Article IV: "The Judiciary"

  1. Unified court system; organization; process:
    1. There shall be a unified court system for the state. The state-wide courts shall consist of the court of appeals, the supreme court including the appellate divisions thereof, the court of claims, the borough court, the surrogate's court and the family court, as hereinafter provided. The unified court system for the state shall include the district, town, and city courts within the State of East Antarctica.
    2. The court of appeals, the supreme court including the appellate divisions thereof, the court of claims, the borough court, the surrogate's court, the family court, the courts or court of civil and criminal jurisdiction of the city of Oazisgrad, and such other courts as the Soviet may determine shall be courts of record.
  2. Supreme Court:
    1. The supreme court shall be the highest court of the State, with final appellate jurisdiction. It shall consist of three justices, one of whom is chief justice. The number of justices may be increased by law upon the request of the supreme court.
    2. The chief justice shall be selected from among the justices of the supreme court by a majority vote of the justices. His term of office as chief justice is three years. A justice may serve more than one term as chief justice but he may not serve consecutive terms in that office.
  3. Superior Court: The superior court shall be the trial court of general jurisdiction and shall consist of five judges. The number of judges may be changed by law.
  4. Qualifications of Justices and Judges: Supreme court justices and superior court judges shall be citizens of the Federated States and of the State, licensed to practice law in the State, and possessing any additional qualifications prescribed by law. Judges of other courts shall be selected in a manner, for terms, and with qualifications prescribed by law.
  5. Nomination and Appointment: The governor shall fill any vacancy in an office of supreme court justice or superior court judge by appointing one of two or more persons nominated by the judicial council.
  6. Approval or Rejection: Each supreme court justice and superior court judge shall, in the manner provided by law, be subject to approval or rejection on a nonpartisan ballot at the first general election held more than three years after his appointment. Thereafter, each supreme court justice shall be subject to approval or rejection in a like manner every tenth year, and each superior court judge, every sixth year.
  7. Vacancy: The office of any supreme court justice or superior court judge becomes vacant ninety days after the election at which he is rejected by a majority of those voting on the question, or for which he fails to file his declaration of candidacy to succeed himself.
  8. Judicial Council: The judicial council shall consist of seven members. Three attorney members shall be appointed for six-year terms by the governing body of the organized state bar. Three non-attorney members shall be appointed for six-year terms by the governor subject to confirmation by a majority of the members of the legislature in joint session. Vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired term in like manner. Appointments shall be made with due consideration to area representation and without regard to political affiliation. The chief justice of the supreme court shall be ex-officio the seventh member and chairman of the judicial council. No member of the judicial council, except the chief justice, may hold any other office or position of profit under the Federated States or the State. The judicial council shall act by concurrence of four or more members and according to rules which it adopts.
  9. Additional Duties: The judicial council shall conduct studies for improvement of the administration of justice, and make reports and recommendations to the supreme court and to the legislature at intervals of not more than two years. The judicial council shall perform other duties assigned by law.
  10. Commission on Judicial Conduct: The Commission on Judicial Conduct shall consist of nine members, as follows: three persons who are justices or judges of state courts, elected by the justices and judges of state courts; three members who have practiced law in this state for ten years, appointed by the governor from nominations made by the governing body of the organized bar and subject to confirmation by a majority of the members of the legislature in joint session; and three persons who are not judges, retired judges, or members of the state bar, appointed by the governor and subject to confirmation by a majority of the members of the legislature in joint session. In addition to being subject to impeachment under section 12 of this article, a justice or judge may be disqualified from acting as such and may be suspended, removed from office, retired, or censured by the supreme court upon the recommendation of the commission. The powers and duties of the commission and the bases for judicial disqualification shall be established by law.
  11. Retirement: Justices and judges shall be retired at the age of seventy except as provided in this article. The basis and amount of retirement pay shall be prescribed by law. Retired judges shall render no further service on the bench except for special assignments as provided by court rule.
  12. Impeachment: Impeachment of any justice or judge for malfeasance or misfeasance in the performance of his official duties shall be according to procedure prescribed for civil officers.
  13. Compensation: Justices, judges, and members of the judicial council and the Commission on Judicial Qualifications shall receive compensation as prescribed by law. Compensation of justices and judges shall not be diminished during their terms of office, unless by general law applying to all salaried officers of the State.
  14. Restrictions: Supreme court justices and superior court judges while holding office may not practice law, hold office in a political party, or hold any other office or position of profit under the Federated States, the State, or its political subdivisions. Any supreme court justice or superior court judge filing for another elective public office forfeits his judicial position.
  15. Rule-Making Power: The supreme court shall make and promulgate rules governing the administration of all courts. It shall make and promulgate rules governing practice and procedure in civil and criminal cases in all courts. These rules may be changed by the legislature by two-thirds vote of the members elected to each house.
  16. Court Administration: The chief justice of the supreme court shall be the administrative head of all courts. He may assign judges from one court or division thereof to another for temporary service. The chief justice shall, with the approval of the supreme court, appoint an administrative director to serve at the pleasure of the supreme court and to supervise the administrative operations of the judicial system.

Article VI: Finance and Taxation

  1. Taxing Power: The power of taxation shall never be surrendered. This power shall not be suspended or contracted away, except as provided in this article.
  2. Public Purpose: No tax shall be levied, or appropriation of public money made, or public property transferred, nor shall the public credit be used, except for a public purpose.
  3. Prohibited Taxes: There shall be no personal income tax, nor any sales taxes on food or prescription medications, nor shall there be any taxes imposed on religious or charity organizations that do not participate in political activities.

Article VII: Initiative, Referendum and Recall

  1. Initiative and Referendum: The people may propose and enact laws by the initiative, and approve or reject acts of the Soviet by the referendum.
  2. Application: An initiative or referendum is proposed by an application containing the bill to be initiated or the act to be referred. The application shall be signed by one percent of qualified voters in each state as sponsors, and shall be filed with the Secretary of State. If he finds it in proper form he shall so certify. Denial of certification shall be subject to judicial review.
  3. Petition: After certification of the application, a petition containing a summary of the subject matter shall be prepared by the Secretary of State for circulation by the sponsors. If signed by qualified voters who are equal in number to at least ten per cent of those who voted in the preceding general election in each state, it may be filed with the Secretary of State.
  4. Initiative Election: An initiative petition may be filed at any time. The Secretary of State shall prepare a ballot title and proposition summarizing the proposed law, and shall place them on the ballot for the first general election held more than one hundred twenty days after adjournment of the Soviet session following the filing.
  5. Referendum Election: A referendum petition may be filed only within ninety days after adjournment of the Soviet session at which the act was passed. The Secretary of State shall prepare a ballot title and proposition summarizing the act and shall place them on the ballot for the first general election held more than one hundred eighty days after adjournment of that session.
  6. Enactment: If a majority of the votes cast on the proposition favor its adoption, the initiated measure is enacted. If a majority of the votes cast on the proposition favor the rejection of an act referred, it is rejected. The states shall certify the election returns. An initiated law becomes effective ninety days after certification, is not subject to veto, and may not be repealed by the Soviet within ten years of its effective date. An act rejected by referendum is void thirty days after certification. Additional procedures for the initiative and referendum may be prescribed by law.
  7. Restrictions: The initiative shall not be used to dedicate revenues, make or repeal appropriations, create courts, define the jurisdiction of courts or prescribe their rules, or enact local or special legislation. The referendum shall not be applied to dedications of revenue, to appropriations, to local or special legislation, or to laws necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety.

Article VII: General Provisions

  1. Boundaries: The State of East Antarctica shall include all territory east of 37.5°E, west of 142.5°E, north of 82°S, and south of 60°S.
  2. Official language: East Antarctica officially has no language gaining official status. No law is to be passed stating the favoring of any language.

Article VIII: Amendment and Revision

  1. Amendments: Amendments to this constitution may be proposed by a two-thirds vote of the Soviet. The lieutenant-governor shall prepare a ballot title and proposition summarizing each proposed amendment, and shall place them on the ballot for the next general election. If a majority of the votes cast on the proposition favor the amendment, it shall be adopted. Unless otherwise provided in the amendment, it becomes effective thirty days after the certification of the election returns by the states.

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